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Urinary Problems - Causes

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Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) usually occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and multiply in the bladder. Infection-fighting assets are found in the urinary system and help inhibit the growth of bacteria. Unfortunately, certain factors boost the chances that bacteria will enter the urinary tract and develop into an infection.

Sexual intercourse may lead to UTI’s in women, and due to the fact that the anus is so close to the female urethra, women who aren't sexually active may contract lower urinary tract infections. Most cases of cystitis are caused by E. coli, a type of bacteria usually found in the gastrointestinal tract. When men suffer from a UTI it is not typically acquired from sexual contact. Some sexually transmitted diseases, like herpes or chlamydia, also are possible causes.

Frequency

This urinary problem can be a characteristic sign of a urinary tract infection. Because irritation and swelling reduces the bladder's ability to hold urine, even small amounts of urine can cause discomfort. Pregnancy, diabetes and prostate problems are other common causes of frequency.

Other possible causes include:

  • Interstitial cystitis, described as a constant irritation of the bladder that is more common in women than men and typically hard to diagnose and treat.

  • Diuretics and many other medications

  • Radiation therapy

  • Neurologic conditions such as a Stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or spinal cord injuries

  • Dietary intake of caffeine or spicy foods

  • Dysfunction of the bladder

  • Bladder cancer

Urgency

This condition can occur due to a variety of different causes. There are certain to be other possible sources of urinary urgency, so talk with your doctor about symptoms you experience. Possible causes of urgency include:

  • Alcohol and caffeine

  • Bladder conditions and stones

  • Bladder irritation

  • Interstitial cystitis

  • Urge incontinence

  • Urinary tract infection

  • Blocked urine flow from conditions such as an enlarged prostate or urethral stricture

  • Overactive Bladder

  • Neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis

Urinary Retention

This problem may happen unexpectedly (acute), causing discomfort or pain, or may take place long term (chronic). As with most urinary problems there are many possible causes, including:

  • Blockages in the urinary system due to urinary tract stones or birth defects

  • Narrowing of the urethra due to scarring from injury or infection

  • Benign enlargement of the prostate gland

  • Nerve or bladder muscle problems

  • Prostate cancer

  • Side effects from some medications, such as allergy and sinus medications and pain medications

  • Constipation

Hematuria

There are numerous possible causes of blood in urine. Some are severe, including cancers, trauma, stones, infections, and obstructions of the urinary tract. Others may be less serious and may not even require treatment. Non-serious causes can be viral infections, medications that thin the blood's ability to clot, and benign prostate enlargement.

Urinary Incontinence

This condition may occur due to a variety of different reasons. Common causes include:

  • Loss of pelvic muscle support of the bladder, especially in women who have had multiple vaginal deliveries as they age

  • Overactive Bladder

  • Neurologic conditions

  • History of Prostate surgery or radiation therapy to the prostate or pelvis

  • Some medications

  • Stool build-up of in the bowels

  • Immobility

  • Urinary tract infection

  • Elevated calcium levels